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Endocrine denotes glands that secrete hormones straight into the blood. The endocrine system is a collection of endocrine glands secreting hormones directly into one’s circulatory system, instead of through a duct, that are to be transported to a target organ. Endocrine glands include the adrenal glands, parathyroid glands, pituitary gland, thyroid gland and thymus. Others are the ovaries, pancreas and testes. 


During this surgery, one or both of the adrenal glands are removed due most often to tumors. These paired endocrine glands, one found above each kidney, produce various hormones, and sometimes they produce hormones that aggravate other conditions like breast cancer. An adrenalectomy is normally performed by open surgery, but some surgeons use laparoscopy, where the surgeon doesn’t open the body cavity but instead makes small incisions under the rib cage.


A pancreatectomy is the removal of the pancreas. It’s the most effective way to treat cancer of the pancreas. The whole organ or part of it may be removed.


This involves removing one or more of the parathyroid glands to treat hyperparathyroidism, or the over functioning of the parathyroid glands. These glands are located in the neck and regulate the calcium balance in the human body.


Thyroidectomy is the surgical procedure done to remove all or part of the thyroid gland. Removal is recommended to correct any abnormalities with the gland, such as difficulties swallowing or breathing due to a goiter. The thyroid gland is found in the frontward part of the neck.

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